Don Klipstein's LED Main Page

Most recent update on 3/10/2019, with the latest noted update on links offsite from here 1/15/2019.


Efficient and bright LEDs! Efficiency of some good ones and some runner-ups in lumens per watt, millicandela and beam angle ratings for some of these, where to get most of these. (updated 3/10/2019)

The above file as of 5/11/2008 before removal of most notes on items noted in 2002 or before then.

Why LEDs until recently outperformed incandescents more in specialty applications than in general lighting. (updated 8/7/2018)

Low Current LEDs - Use just a few milliamps or easily even .2-2 mA for LED indicator lamps! Reduce battery requirements or power cost, and equipment heating! Updated 9/5/2015.

My LED FAQ! This covers many of the questions people ask me. Please read this before e-mailing me. (updated 5/30/2016.)

"LEDs 101" or "LEDs For Dummies" - how to make them work, why to use a dropping resistor instead of a 2.4 or whatever volt regulator. (Don't laugh until you see what I have seen in sci.electronics.basics!) (Updated slightly 3/22/2011)

The truth of pulsing LEDs to make them appear brighter. The nonlinearity that sometimes makes this work is in LEDs and not in human vision. This usually does not work when feeding 20 mA or more of average current through an ultrabright LED. (updated slightly 6/19/2001)

(My "odd LED" page has been removed 2/9/2009.)

Overview of the different LED types - the different colors, brightnesses, and a bit of the basic chemistry and electrical and other properties of each of these. (Updated 6/26/2002)

My Yellow SiC LED Page - I managed to get my hands on one of those rare LEDs! (NEW FILE 12/13/2000, updated slightly 4/3/2010)

My page on adjusting / modifying / mixing LED colors for special colors, such as high brightness / high efficiency "lime green".

UV from the right kind of blue LED! Other blue LEDs and blue light sources will get some blacklight effects since many non-blue fluorescent substances fluoresce from some visible light as well as UV. But 450 nM broadband blue GaN LEDs can be made to produce some UV! UPDATED 10/1/2006 - links to spectral results of a hack on a historic obsolete kind of blue LED, the first commercially successful type of high brightness blue LED!

How much you need of red, green and blue LEDs to make white of various color temperatures. Only certain LED types are covered here. You need more red and especially notably much less blue than many would think! (New file 7/4/2001, updated 1/2/2008)

My Blue LED Shootout - to show advantages and disadvantages of popular and less-popular wavelengths of blue LEDs. (updated slightly 9/24/2000)

My page on Organic LEDs, Polymer LEDs and the like. New and still under construction with slow progress, some on 7/16/2003 - I am mainly following the usual semiconductor kind of LEDs more than stuff sometimes known as "DC electroluminescence".

My Nightlight File. Link from here to there added 1/16/2004 due to recently adding there its first LED nightlight. Updated 4/20/2010.


Craig Johnson's LED page, lots of actual test results and some useful torture test results!

NOTABLE - Craig Johnson has a news page.

Most recent noted significant update 9/17/2014 for an LED, 7/20/2015 for an LED flashlight, 5/25/2018 for an LED product other than a flashlight, 1/15/2019 for a laser product, 7/16/2012 for a non-LED flashlight, 9/26/2013 for a non-LED lighting or glowing product other than a flashlight or a laser, and 11/5/2015 for updating links from his site to other sites. Updates on these products have slowed greatly since mid 2016.

UPDATE 4/14/2006 - Now added: Spectra of many LEDs, LED flashlights and other LED products, and other light sources especially neon glow lamps. To get these, look for "spectra" among the many links to other pages in that site, in the left frame of!

The home page of Renssalaer's Lighting research Center - includes links to LED stuff.


Nichia is the first company to produce commercially successful high brightness blue LEDs and white ones derived from these.

Their English website.
NOTE - current upgraded grade LEDs are best-obtained from Nichia sales offices. They do handle small orders. The ones from surplus outfits are often previous grade (dimmer but still very impressive) even if you confirm the same part numbers. (Nichia is known to improve their LEDs without changing their part numbers.) Or, they may vary strangely in beam width.

They now have UV LEDs, and violet and blue laser diodes.

Straight to the web site of Cree, another maker of bright LEDs.

The LED top page of Broadcom formerly Avago, spun off by Agilent, spun off by Hewlett Packard.

Lumileds, formerly a joint venture of Agilent and Philips Lighting, now it's Philips Lumileds.


Vishay (Telefunken)
Ledtronics, a maker of LED products such as indicator lamps and LED screw-in light bulbs., formerly Hebei I.T. Shanghai Co.

Lighting Science Group

Other Interesting LED Suppliers, etc.

Roithner Laser. Includes oddball LEDs such as infrared ones of oddball wavelengths such as 740 nm and some higher power ones.

Waveform Lighting, who manufactures LED lighting products with CRI as high as 99. This page shows spectra of some various high and moderately high CRI light sources.

Craig Johnson's list of suppliers, manufacturers, etc. Includes LED products such as brake lights, marine cabin lights and flashlights as well as just LEDs.

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Written by Don Klipstein.

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